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论新托福阅读总结题的做题方法

发布时间:2017-07-31 16:15:21 来源:朗阁培训中心 编辑:朗阁小编
每每提到托福阅读就会有不少考托福的小伙伴们对我抱怨最后一道总结题(prose summary)读不懂,做不对,做不完这“三不交响曲”。

 
朗阁海外考试研究中心
 
每每提到托福阅读就会有不少考托福的小伙伴们对我抱怨最后一道总结题(prose summary)读不懂,做不对,做不完这“三不交响曲”。这道题几乎是所有同学的硬伤,老师们也一直在为这个题苦苦摸索,探索可以帮助学生快速解决这题的良方。那么在接下来的文章中,我会就总结题的快速解题方法展开论述。
 
首先我们需要知道所有的总结题题目都是由两部分组成的:题干+介绍句。
An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answers that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.
 
以上是题干。这个题的题干在每篇TPO中都是一样的,所以我们只需要看一次了解一下这个题的相关信息,以后就可以一劳永逸了。
 
首先这个题干中提到了这道题目2分。它的给分标准是错一个扣1分。言外之意就是从6个中选择3个,3个全部选对,可以获得2分。对了2个就是1分,对1个没有分。有些同学认为这种给分方法不公平,明明做对了一个为什么会不得分?但是笔者认为这往往从另一个方面证明它是非常公平的。大家可以想想我们的目标是从6个中选3个,你对了1个证明什么?这往往说明这个题做的非常糟糕,我们没读懂,对这篇文章的了解和把握上面是有很大的问题的,所以此时老外会认为水平非常low, 所以就直接不给分。出国考试中的评分通常是这样的,如果英语水平非常高,老外允许你错1个或者2个还是给满分,但是如果水平非常低就会直接打压。在这个给分上面我们就不过分的争议了,毕竟木已成舟。我们只需要知道这个评分规则,尽力去拿高分。
 
其次题干中说到在题干下面会有一个对全文总结的介绍句给出。但凡是研究过总结题的朋友都应该知道这个introductory sentence不一定是对全文的总结,有可能是对段落的总结。接下来我们来看几个例子。
 
An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the paragraph:
Eg. Deer in the Puget Sound area eat a wide variety of foods and migrate seasonally to hunt for food.(摘自 Deer Populations of the Puget Sound
Eg. Plants need to absorb certain minerals from the soil in adequate quantities for normal growth and development.(摘自 Minerals and Plants
Eg. Together, Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia make up the described as the Pacific islands, or Oceania.(摘自 The Origin of the Pacific Island People
 
An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage:
Eg. There are several possible explanations why people cannot easily remember their early childhoods.(摘自 Infantile Amnesia
Eg. Researchers use a number of techniques to determine how infants respond to changes in their environment.(摘自 Methods of Studying Infant Perception
Eg. Advertisers sometimes use strategies that can mislead children.(摘自Children and Advertising
 
为什么会把这个introductory sentence的不同类别列举出来?也许很多同学会问,因为这个会直接影响后面的解题方法。
 
笔者提供解答这道题目的两种方法:
 
1. 根据介绍句直接做题:
根据介绍句直接做题这种方法有一个前提,就是此时介绍句是对全文的总结。但是此时同学们可能问题又来了,我怎么知道这句话是对全文总结还是对于段落的总结?因为总结题永远都是处于最后一题,所以当有了前面那么多题目的铺垫,我相信看到一句话是可以判断出这句话是对全文总结还是对段落总结的。
 
正确选项特征:
1). 与介绍句中所讨论话题一致
2). 正确选项论述高度相似
 
因为只看介绍句,所以此时我们要结合错误选项的特征一起考虑某个陈述是否正确。题干中也说了minor ideas和ideas that not presented in the passage是错误选项。细节和信息错误不可以入选。信息错误很好判断,一般在前面的题目中会留下线索。但是细节信息就不是很好判断。
 
细节信息的特征:
1). 例子
举的例子肯定是为了证明前面的观点,所以如果选项中看到文中提到的某个例子肯定是细节。
Eg. Studies show that misleading tactics are used most often in commercials for breakfast cereals, with toy commercials using such tactics only slightly less frequently.(摘自 Children and Advertising
...For example, the claim that breakfast cereal has a health benefit may be accompanied by the disclaimer "when part of a nutritionally balanced breakfast." ...(摘自 Children and Advertising
 
Eg. Isotopes of a given element have exactly the same physical properties, but their chemical properties are slightly different.(摘自 Development of the Periodic Table
...For example, tellurium comes before iodine in the periodic table, even though its atomic mass is slightly greater. Such anomalies are due to the relative abundance of the "isotopes" or varieties of each element. All the isotopes of a given element have the same number of protons, but differ in their number of neutrons, and hence in their atomic mass.
2). 一类中的一种
所谓一类中的一种指的是原文是对一个大范围的描述,而选项是缩小范围对其进行论述。Eg. 小明喜欢吃苹果,香蕉,梨。如果选项说小明只喜欢吃苹果,这就是错误的,因为这就是缩小范围,只是我原文所述中的一种。
而如果选项说小明喜欢吃水果,这个选项则是对的,因为它对原文进行了概括。
 
Eg. 1. Artificially producing the Duchenne smile can cause a person to have pleasant feelings. (摘自 The Expression of Emotions
Psychological research seems to confirm that people associate particular facial expressions with the same emotions across cultures.
通读选项和介绍句知道选项中的smile是facial expression中的一种,pleasant feelings是emotion中的一种,所以这个选项也偏细节。
 
Eg.
○ The number and sophistication of the architectural, administrative, commercial, and religious features of Teotihuacan indicate the existence of centralized planning and control.
○ Teotihuacan may have developed its own specific local religion as a result of the cultural advances made possible by the city’s great prosperity.
○ As a result of its large number of religious shrines, by the first century A.D., Teotihuacan became the most influential religious center in all of Mesoamerica.
上面这个题是一个非常好的例子。选项1非常宏观从architectural, administrative, commercial, and religious角度来讨论这个城市崛起的原因。但是选项2仅从specific local religion讨论,选项3提到religious shrines范围更小。所以只有选项1是符合对原文总结的,选项2 & 3都是细节。
 
3). 某个人观点
通常情况下个人观点也是为了说明文章中的主题,所以个人观点也是为了佐证其它论点,因此个人观点也是细节。
Eg. Ekman argued that the ability to accurately recognize the emotional content of facial expressions was valuable for human beings.
第一种方法直接通过介绍句做题就是直接看introductory sentence, 并且结合错误选项去排除,用其中一篇文章详细说明。
 
Eg. The levels of education, the acquisition of wealth, and occupational prestige determine social status in the United States.(摘自 Layers of Social Class
介绍句里面包括education level & wealth & occupational prestige和social status, 同时还是前者决定后者。回顾上文所提到的正确选项特征,1). 必须和介绍句讨论话题保持一致;2). 正确选项论述高度相似。所以正确的选项就不是很难判断了。
People who have made their money more recently tend not to be accepted by those who have inherited their wealth from family holdings.
1里面所讨论的是一批人不被另外一批人所接受,介绍句说的是某某决定社会地位,所以话题不一致,直接排除。
The lower class includes working people with low income and a new underclass of people who are dependent on welfare or engage in crime.
2里面提到lower class对应social status, 提到people with low income, people who are dependent on welfare or engage in crime, 概括一下就是the acquisition of wealth, 所以2同时提到了介绍句里面的信息,先保留,因为此时我们没有看原文,不要太武断地直接选取或者排除。
The upper class tends to acquire wealth through inheritance, whereas the upper middle class has a high income that they earn their professions.
3里面提到upper class对应social status, 提到acquire wealth through inheritance & earn their professions, 这是说the acquisition of wealth。所以2和3里面在说一件事,要选都选,要排除都排除。
○ Although the lifestyle of the upper middle class is the goal for majority, it is difficult for many people to maintain this standard of living.
4里面讲到的是中上层的生活方式,和很难维持这种生活方式,与介绍句中某某决定生活方式讨论的不是一回事,所以这个选项排除。
○ Most people identify themselves as middle class, including blue-collar workers and service workers as well bureaucratic employees.
5里面提到middle class对应social status, 提到blue-collar workers, service workers & employees, 这是说occupation。也就是说什么样的社会地位与之相匹配的职业是什么样的。选项5和选项2 & 3陈述一致。
○ It is still possible to move from one social class to another in the United States by working your way up the ladder in a corporate environment.
6里面说可以从一个社会阶级移动到另外一个社会阶级。如果可以移动那应该没有决定因素。所以此时把介绍句推翻了,与介绍句意思相反,不可选。
 
此时正确选项就非常清楚了,选择2 & 3 & 5。
 
2. 读每段的段首句,总结文章段落大意做题:
在第一遍浏览文章的时候就应该读文章的段首句以此了解文章的段落大意和文章大意。
注意:1). 若首段很短(两三句),首段需要全部读完,因为此时极有可能在首段介绍文章的主要脉络。若首段很长就只需要读首句。
Eg. In the late sixteenth century and into the seventeenth, Europe continued the growth that had lifted it out of the relatively less prosperous medieval period (from the mid 400s to the late 1400s). Among the key factors behind this growth were increased agricultural productivity and an expansion of trade.(摘自 Seventeenth-Century European Economic Growth
这篇文章就是围绕increased agricultural productivity and an expansion of trade如何促进经济增长展开论述的。
 
注意:2). 若首段首句是问句,则需要找后面一两句作为段落大意。
Eg. How did those dense southern Maya populations deal with the resulting water problem? It initially surprises us that many of their cities were not built next to the rivers but instead on high terrain in rolling uplands. The explanation is that the Maya excavated depressions, or modified natural depressions, and then plugged up leaks in the karst by plastering the bottoms of the depressions in order to create reservoirs, which collected rain from large plastered catchment basins and stored it for use in the dry season.
显然这段的TS(Topic Sentence)不在首句,而是后面的The explanation is that...,知道了总结中心句之后,我们把每段的中心句合在一起就是对文章的总结。此时有个小技巧就是在草稿纸上用一两个词记录中心意思。我们接下来看一个具体的例子,看看知道了文章的段落大意之后怎么去解题(以下是文章的每一段首句)。
Eg1. Young children are trusting of commercial advertisements in the media, and advertisers have sometimes been accused of taking advantage of this trusting outlook.
2. General concern about misleading tactics that advertisers employ is centered on the use of exaggeration.
3. Fantasy is one of the more common techniques in advertising that could possibly mislead a young audience.
4. The use of celebrities such as singers and movie stars is common in advertising.
5. Regarding the appearance of celebrities in advertisements that do not involve host selling, the evidence is mixed.(摘自 Children and Advertising
 
以上是文章中每段的首句,接下来我们总结一下每段的意思。
1. 儿童和广告关系:儿童相信广告,广告利用孩子的信任误导孩子。
2. 误导方法一:exaggeration
3. 误导方法二:fantasy
4. 误导方法三:celebrity
5. 还是围绕celebrity展开讨论
 
所以这篇文章的结构非常清晰,主要在围绕广告如何误导孩子展开讨论。我们看看最后的总结题。
Advertisers sometimes use strategies that can mislead children.



Answer Choices
Advertisements can be misleading to children when the advertisements use audio and visual formats that are especially appealing to children.
Children may not be able to interpret exaggerated claims made by advertisers or understand the disclaimers used to offset claims.
Although the use of celebrities is not necessarily effective in advertisements aimed at children, there is evidence that host selling can positively affect their views of a product.
Studies show that misleading tactics are used most often in commercials for breakfast cereals, with toy commercials using such tactics only slightly less frequently.
The use of fantasy is especially common in advertisements for children, but children may not be able to distinguish fantasy from reality.
Very young children are particularly influenced by host selling, while slightly older children are more readily misled by seemingly rational claims such as “the best.”
直接看选项,可以很轻易的找出2 & 3 & 5正好说到了文章中讲的三种方法,所以就可以大胆的选择了。
 
注意如果还有其它选项也提到了这里所说的三种方法,我们就需要进行仔细的比对,看看有没有信息错误,或者有没有细节信息。
 
针对总结题的这两种方法各有利弊
1). 不看原文,通过介绍句做题会比较冒险,但是相对省时间。
2). 仔细看文章段首句,分析段落大意,这种方法比较保守,正确率高,但是相对耗时。所以运用这种方法时需要大量训练找中心句,总结段落大意。
 
纵观各种方法,笔者认为把这两种结合起来灵活运用可能效果会更好。如果段落结构清晰,就用段首句法,如果结构不清晰就用介绍句法。简而言之,方法并不是一成不变的,而应该根据不同的文章进行有效的调整。但是万变不离其宗,任何灵活的方法都是基于最原始的方法。只有把上面的方法运用得比较熟练了才可以去寻找更快更有效的方法。
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