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常见托福阅读易忽略词义罗列

发布时间:2017-07-13 15:18:21 来源:朗阁培训中心 编辑:朗阁小编
笔者曾看到一本帮助大家按照话题分类来罗列词汇的词汇书。立意很好,把杂乱零散的词汇分好了类别再让大家来看,效率就高了。然而,这样的词...

 
笔者曾看到一本帮助大家按照话题分类来罗列词汇的词汇书。立意很好,把杂乱零散的词汇分好了类别再让大家来看,效率就高了。然而,这样的词汇书虽然很不错,但也是存在一些微小的疏忽的,比如crater, 被编者放在了地质话题里,很合理,但是给的意思却让人诧异,作者给出的意思是:“弹坑”,让我感觉分明是个军事词汇。然而其在托福阅读里最多见的意思就是“撞击坑“、“火山口”,有时也可以表示动词“在…上形成坑”。这几个意思如果不罗列出来,那么一本立意很好、包装又精美的词汇书,就始终让人略感遗憾了。这里就涉及到英语词汇里的一个常见问题了——理解偏差。
 
所以,本篇就一些在托福阅读中常见却又容易让刚入门的学生产生理解偏差的情况,试图做一番归纳,以减轻学生自学的负担。
 
序号 词汇 理解上的偏差 例句与出处
与逻辑有关
1 and 会误解为“并且”,实际上还可理解为“因此、所以”,只要看出“and”左右两边的事情不是同时发生就可明白意思。 As a result of crustal adjustments and faulting, the Strait of Gibraltar, where the Mediterranean now connects to the Atlantic, opened, and water cascaded spectacularly back into the Mediterranean. (TPO7 The Geologic History of the Mediterranean)
2 in turn 会误以为是字典里的头条注释:“反过来”。实际上可以理解为“接着会…(发生)…” The conventional theory is that people yawn when bored or sleepy because yawning raises blood oxygen levels, which in turn raises alertness. (TPO18 The mystery of yawning)
3 allow 往往会理解为是“允许”,其实常见的是指“使…可能发生”,带有因果逻辑在里面。 Within the turtle's flippers, there is a countercurrent exchange system that allows colder blood vessels to absorb heat from nearby warmer blood vessels and then return warmed blood to the turtle's body. (TPO15 A Warm-Blooded Turtle)
4 permit 同上,也存在“使有可能”的释义,且确实在托福阅读里较常见。 Extracting heat from very hot, dry rocks presents a more difficult problem: the rocks must be fractured to permit the circulation of water, and the water must be provided artificially. The rocks are fractured by water pumped down at very high pressures. (TPO21 Geothermal Energy)
5 responsible 说起“负责”,其实本身就有“导致”的意思,比如机场爆炸案,恐怖组织宣布“负责”,意思就是“我导致的,我造成的”,并非是常见的涉及“关爱”的那种“负责”,这个和日常交流带来的理解偏差有关系。 Higher temperatures and pressures promote sedimentation, which is responsible for petroleum formation. (TPO4 Petroleum Resources)
6 yet 作为连词,应该要理解为“但是”。 Of course, the contrast is not quite so stark: in Alexander the Great the Greeks had found the greatest territorial conqueror of all time; and the Romans, once they moved outside Italy, did not fail to learn the lessons of sea power. Yet the essential difference is undeniable. (TPO7 Ancient Rome and Greece)
7 account for 根据个人实际教学,“(比例上)占…”与“解释”这两个意思,很多人只知道任意一个。 #Heavy rain accounts for most of the water that enters into lakes. (TPO24 Lake Water)
#Scientists will not be able to account for climate changeover the past century until they learn more about the urban heat island. (TPO48 Climate and Urban Development)
8 suggest 在托福里,真的很少见到“建议”这种说法,倒是往往与下结论有关,可理解为“表明”。 Timberline trees are normally evergreens, suggesting that these have some advantage over deciduous trees (those that lose their leaves) in the extreme environments of the upper timberline. (TPO1 Timberline Vegetation on Mountains)
9 though 若是副词,就该理解为“然而”,可是多数人不明此事,老师在课上应该多强调这种看似简单其实会导致理解有误的词汇。 If true, though, why did cold-blooded animals such as snakes, lizards, turtles, and crocodiles survive the freezing winters and torrid summers? (TPO8 Dinosaur Extinctions)
话题词汇
10 precipitation 据个人观察,除了常见的“沉淀”,学生易忽略“降水”的意思。 Ordinary meteoric water is water that has soaked into the ground from the surface, from precipitation (rain and snow) and from lakes and streams. (TPO1 Ground Water)
11 game “野生猎物”的意思初学者几乎全军覆没。 They had experienced great difficulty finding game west of the Rockies and not until the second of December did they kill their first elk. (TPO4 Deer Populations of the Puget Sound)
12 mine “矿”的意思有三分之一的人不清楚。 This scenario begins with the planting of hyperaccumulating species in the target area, such as an abandoned mine or an irrigation pond contaminated by runoff. (TPO5 Plants and Minerals)
13 crater 托福阅读里多数都是指“撞击坑”或者“火山口”。 The Mariner spacecraft found that the surface of Mars, as well as that of its two moons, is pitted with impact craters formed by meteoroids falling in from space. (TPO25 The Surface of Mars)
14 solution 除了“解决方案”,还要知道“溶液”也是常见说法。 Mineral deficiencies in many plants can be cured by misting their roots with a nutrient solution or by transferring the plants to a soilless nutrient solution. (TPO5 Plants and Minerals)
15 plate 哪能只知道“盘子”的意思?还要知道“板块”之意。 Some plates carry islands or continents others form the seafloor. All are slowly moving because the plates float on a denser semi-liquid mantle, the layer between the crust and Earth’s core. (TPO27 The Formation of Volcanic Islands)
16 current “洋流、电流、气流”等,常客了。
形容词词性的注释却更为人所知晓。
The same thing happens to this day, though on a smaller scale, wherever a sediment-laden river or stream emerges from a mountain valley onto relatively flat land, dropping its load as the current slows: the water usually spreads out fanwise, depositing the sediment in the form of a smooth, fan-shaped slope. (TPO1 Ground Water)
17 chemical 名词表示化学物质。约一半的人不清楚。 The Biological Approach. Numerous biological structures and chemicals appear to be involved in aggression. (Official Guide Aggression)
18 browse “觅食”这个意思,在托福阅读里其实不算很多见,但是比大家熟知的“浏览”要多见。 Where the forest inhibits the growth of grass and other meadow plants, the black-tailed deer browses on huckleberry, salal, dogwood, and almost any other shrub or herb. But this is fair-weather feeding. (TPO4 Deer Populations of the Puget Sound)
19 tension 除了“紧张”,还有“张力”,文本里有时候会给解释。 It is held there by the force of surface tension without which water would drain instantly from any wet surface, leaving it totally dry. (TPO1 Ground Water)
20 grain 可以衍生出“颗粒”的意思。 A few chondrules contain grains that survived the melting event, so these enigmatic chondrules must have formed when compact masses of nebular dust were fused at high temperatures—approaching 1,700 degrees Celsius—and then cooled before these surviving grains could melt. (TPO22 The Allende Meteorite)
21 impact 除了“影响”,不能不知道“冲击、撞击”。 In view of these facts, scientists hypothesized that a single large asteroid, about 10 to 15 kilometers across, collided with Earth, and the resulting fallout created the boundary clay. Their calculations show that the impact kicked up a dust cloud that cut off sunlight for several months, inhibiting photosynthesis in plants; decreased surface temperatures on continents to below freezing… (TPO8 Dinosaur Extinctions)
22 setting 不仅仅是“设置”,还要知道“背景”。 Other statues were designed to be placed within an architectural setting, for instance, in front of the monumental entrance gateways to temples known as pylons… (TPO11 Ancient Egyptian Sculpture)
23 complex
 
“建筑群”,常误解为“复杂”。 It had over 2,000 apartment complexes, a great market, a large number of industrial workshops, an administrative center, a number of massive religious edifices… (TPO8 The Rise of Teotihuacán)
24 population 不能一概理解为“人口”,其他物种可以直接说成“数量”。 when Fort Vancouver became the headquarters of the Hudson's Bay Company, deer populations continued to fluctuate. (TPO4 Deer Populations of the Puget Sound)
25 reflection “反思”这个意思不算很常见,但既然出现了就要记住。 Teachers, it is thought, benefit from the practice of reflection, the conscious act of thinking deeply about and carefully examining the interactions and events within their own classrooms. (TPO9 Reflection in Teaching)
与其他有关
26 perspective “观点”,不仅仅是“透视”。 The Freudian perspective, in a sense: sees us as “steam engines”… (Official Guide Aggression)
27 episode 更多是指“事件”,不能说成“集”,生活总会影响学术。 The K-T extinction 65 million years ago is the best known of the five major extinction episodes since the Cambrian period. (TPO33 Extinction Episodes of the Past)
28 readily 其实是“容易地”,并非“准备”之类的。 The release of heat energy is retarded by the tall vertical city walls that do not allow infrared radiation to escape as readily as does the relatively level surface of the surrounding countryside. (TPO48 Climate and Urban Development)
29 edge “优势”的说法其实不算多见,但“边缘”虽知道的人多,其实也不多见。干脆两个都记住好了。 It seems likely that Teotihuacán’s natural resources, along with the city elite’s ability to recognize their potential, gave the city a competitive edge over its neighbors. The valley, like many other places in Mexican and Guatemalan highlands, was rich in obsidian. (TPO8 The Rise of Teotihuacán)
30 critical 背词汇书的人,恐怕并太清楚有“重要的”这个释义,挺常见的。 First, primary groups are critical to the socialization process. Within them, infants and children are introduced to the ways of their society. (TPO13 Types of Social Groups)
31 principal 除了名词的意思,就是形容词的意思了,表示“主要的”。 The principal insect enemies of the North American morning glory feed mainly on its flowers or fruits rather than its leaves. (TPO34 Protection of Plants by Insects)
32 largely 不能望文生义为“大”,而是应理解为“在很大程度上”。 The distinctive look of ancient Egyptian sculpture was determined largely by its function. (TPO11 Ancient Egyptian Sculpture)
33 likely 同上,不是“喜欢”,是“可能的”。 Neither brown nor red algae are likely to be ancestors of plants because of their difference in pigmentation. (TPO25 The Evolutionary Origin of Plants)
34 secondary 除了“中等的”,不能不知道“次要的”。 Also, large blocks thrown aside by the impact would form secondary craters surrounding the main crater. (TPO15 Mass Extinctions)
35 passage 全部说成“文章”,自然奇怪,还要知道“通道”、“变迁”等意思。 How might this inability to recall early experiences be explained? The sheer passage of time does not account for it; adults have excellent recognition of pictures of people who attended high school with them 35 years earlier. (TPO6 Infantile Amnesia)
36 prevailing 除了“流行的”,还要知道“普遍的”。 The nature of plant life in deserts is also highly dependent on the fact that they have to adapt to the prevailing aridity. (TPO26 Survival of Plants and Animals in Desert Conditions)
37 considerable “值得考虑的”这个意思,笔者在托福里基本没见到过,只见过“相当大的”、“相当多的”。 The existence of competition has been long known to naturalists; its effects were described by Darwin in considerable detail. (TPO29 Competition)
38 evident 都说成“证据”就不对了,还要知道“明显的”。其实证据就是让一样被隐藏的东西变得“明显”,可以这么去记。 Wind velocity also increases with altitude and may cause serious stress for trees, as is made evident by the deformed shapes at high altitudes. (TPO1 Timberline Vegetation on Mountains)
39 collectively 不能望文生义为“收集地”,还有“共同地”这个释义较为常见。 Eventually, six round forms of handwriting, composed of three pairs of big and little scripts known collectively as the Six Pens, became the standard repertory of every calligrapher. (TPO34 Islamic Art and the Book)
40 course 光知道“课程”怎么行,最起码还要知道“路线”。 In paragraph 2, why does the author mention that some insect populations were separated from each other by a change in the course of Mississippi River caused by an earthquake? (TPO31 Speciation in Geographically Isolated Populations)
41 evenly 和“甚至”无关,因为“甚至”对应的“even”本来就是个副词,不能再加“-ly”了,此处在托福阅读里有“均匀地”这个意思。 Petroleum forms best when organic matter is evenly distributed over ... (TPO43 The Origin of Petroleum)
 
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